May 16, 2023, Risk-Limiting Audit Report

For the second statewide RLA, the Democratic race for Pennsylvania Supreme Court was randomly selected for review. The results of the audited sample matched the initial reported results, decisively confirming the accuracy of the outcome of the May primary. 

To conduct this specific audit:

  • Sixty-five counties created ballot manifests, which are spreadsheets showing the number of ballots counted for the selected contest and details on how the ballots are organized and stored. This collection of information allows batches of ballots to be identified, retrieved, and examined if selected for the audit.
  • After counties uploaded their ballot manifests to an open-source audit software tool called Arlo, Department of State staff generated a random 20-digit seed number during a livestreamed dice roll.
  • That seed number was then entered into the audit software, which selected a random list of ballot batches for certain counties to retrieve. In total, 25 batches from 14 counties – a total of 2,637 ballots – were randomly chosen to be audited.
  • The 14 selected counties retrieved the randomly selected batches of ballots and verified the vote cast for the Democratic race for Pennsylvania Supreme Court on each ballot.
  • The audit software system then tallied and analyzed the results.

No variations in vote totals were found during the execution of this RLA.

Download detailed results of the 2023 Primary Election risk-limiting audit: 2023-audit-report-May-16-2023-Primary-Election